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NO. 79 JANUARY, 1%5 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 




ONTARIO 



DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. F.A. MacDougall 

Minister Deputy Minister 



(These Reports are tor Intra- Departmental Information 
and not for Publication) 



NO. 79 



JANUARY, 1965 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 



FISH AND WILDLIFE BRANCH 




ONTARIO 

DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS 



Hon. A. Kelso Roberts, Q.C. 
Minister 



F.A. Mac Doug all 
Deputy Minister 



(These Reports are ror Intra- Departmental Information 
and not for Publication) 



RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REPORT 

TABLE OF CONTENTS 
No. 79 January, 1965 



(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA- DEPARTMENTAL 
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION) 



rage 



Report on the Ontario Trappers' Association Fur 
Sales Service 1963-1964 Season. 

- by W. H. Chellew 1 

Moose Browse Survey and Pellet Group Count, 

Kenora District, 1S64. - by R. B. Hall 5 

Duck Banding, Kapuskasing District, 1964, 

- by G. M. Hendry 19 

Duck Hunting in the Lindsay District, 1963, 

- by E. T. Cox 28 

Opening Day of the Waterfowl Season, September 
26, 1964, Lake Simcoe District. 

- by J. S. Dorland 36 

The Present Status of Sharp-tailed Grouse in 
the Kenora District,- 1963. 

- by R. W. McGillivray 41 

Lake Mindemoya Creel Census, 1961, 1962, 1963. 

- by F. A. Zinmerman 50 



REPORT ON THE ONTARIO TRAPPERS 1 ASSOCIATION FUR SALES SERVICE 

1963 - 1964 SEASON 

by 
W. H. Chellew 
Department Representative, 
OoT.AoF.SoS, North Bay 



Abstract 

This 13 the second annual report to be issued at the 
close cf the Ontario Trappers 1 Association Fur Sales 
Service season. The season of 1963-64 was quite 
successful with an increase of 51 per cent in the 
dollar volume of sales. There was a generally strong 
market with most specien in good demand. Tables are 
presented showing the number of pelts according to 
dollar volume and average pr:°.^e; the increase or 
decrease in pelt volume over last year, and the 
number of trapper shippers according to value of 
shipments. 



The 1963-64 season has been another year of success for 
the Ontario Trappers' Fur Sales* Dollar volume of sales increased 
51 per cent to realize $1/1423 8430 12. The market was generally 
strong with good demand for most specieso Beaver were strong through- 
out the season showing 11 per cent average increase over last year. 
Lynx were in good demand and showed a 12 per cent increase. Otter 
were very strong and showed a 30 par cent increase in price bringing 
a high cf 53 per cent. While fisher were in very poor demand and 
in many cases rare held over from sale to sale the seasons average 
was 27 per cent higher than last year. Mink, marten and muskrats 
showed a slight decrease in average prices while raccoon slipped 
40 per cent. See Table I« 

One thousand eight hundred and fifty- seven trappers and 
twenty-nine fur dealers used the services of the sales producing 
4283 shipments. This represents a 35 per cent increase in shippers 
and 28 per cent increase in shipments. The difference in these two 
figures can be attributed to muskrat trappers from southern Ontario 
who send their entire catch in one shipment. This can be verified 
by the increase in the number of rats handled which amounted to 
97,550 this year as compared to 56 , 330 last year. See Table II. 



Indians from the James Bay agency shipped fur to the value 
of $52,057,00 this season. This represents a 12 per cent increase 
over the $46,700 shipped in the '62=' 63 season. The above figures 
include Indians of the James Bay agency who trap on Michipicoten 
Island where the take was down, thus holding the increase down. The 
volume of fur handled for treaty Indians in the Patricia District 
could be greatly increased if some means of making on the spot 
advances can be inaugurated. 

Twenty-nine resident fur dealers made 186 shipments for a 
value of $227,175.00. These shippers substantially increase the 
profit to the sale as they pay their own express and as the size of 
the shipment increases, the cost of handling per pelt decreases. 

One thousand seven hundred and eighty-nine shippers other 
than James Bay Indians and dealers made 3,937 shipments valued at 
$863,610.00. This amounts to 2.2 shipments per trapper or $219.00 
per shipment. The average shipper in this class received $402.00, 
with a low of $2.00 and a high of $7,259.00. A further breakdown 
of these shippers show 70 per cent of the shippers receiving under 
$500.00, 18 per cent between $500.00 and $1000.00, 7 per cent between 
$1000 and $1500 and 5 per cent between $1500 and $7259. See Table 
III. 

While fur-handling continues to improve there is still 
much more work to be done in this field. This is very evident in a 
lot of new shippers and perhaps these are also new trappers. There 
is no way for a trapper to increase his revenue more easily than to 
produce a top quality well-handled skin. The educational program of 
the past has once again put well-handled Ontario fur in the limelight 
of the world market. 

New handling methods used at the sale have speeded up 
operations and at the same time cut down on the work load. The big 
problem at the present time is space both for handling and buyer 
inspection. Land for a new building has been purchased and it is 
hoped that financial arrangements for a new warehouse can be 
completed in time for the next season. 

The conservation officer and trapper training program at 
the sale continues to improve and more new methods will be 
inaugurated this year. Lectures given during the past year proved 
very useful and this phase of the program will be expanded. It 
bears repeating that there is probably no other way for a trapper or 
conservation officer to gain such a wide knowledge of the fur industry 
in so short a time. 



Any prediction of the market for the coming year would be 
less than an educated guess. Although in the past few weeks there 
seems to be some renewed interest, the overall picture is rather 
quiet. Beaver and muskrats have been very slow during the summer 
and it is too early to predict a trend at this time. Indications 
are that mink should hold fairly firm and long-haired fur is still 
in good demand. 



Table No. I 










No. of Pelts 


in Order of 


Dollar Volume and 


Average 


Price 


Species 


No. Pelts 


Dollar Value 


Average Price 


Beaver 


50,292 


$705,596.76 




14.03 


Muskrat 


£7,547 


151,197.85 




1.55 


Mink 


10,720 


125,745.60 




11.73 


Otter 


2,025 


62,743.50 




30.98 


Marten 


5,157 


31,612.41 




6.13 


Fisher 


1,654 


22,510.94 




13.61 


Lynx 


571 


14,370.80 




14.00 


Raccoon 


5,724 


11,504.24 




2.01 


Fox 


1,233 


6,337.62 




5.14 


Castoreum 


1,493 lbs. 


4,337.32 




3.24 lb. 


Bear 


113 


2,330.06 




20.62 


Weasel 


2,700 


1,138.00 




.44 


Wolf 


149 


640.70 




4.30 


Squirrel 


1,049 


346.17 




.33 



Table No. II 



1963-64 Increase & Decrease in Pelt Volume over 1962-63 



Beaver 


plus 32% 


Otter 


plus 


49% 


Fisher 


51 65% 


Raccoon 


it 


46% 


Fox 


55 17% 


Squirrel 


minus 


11% 


Lynx 


" 4% 


weasel 


plus 


32% 


Marten 


15 -I K,r>m 


vJolf 


it 


71% 


Mink 


42% 


Castoreum 


it 


72% 


Muskrat 


Cf 73% 


Bear 


ti 


352% 



Table No. 


III 












Number of Traop 


er Shippers 


According to 


Vali 


ue of 


Shipments 


No. of 


Dollar 


No. of 


Dollar 


No 


. of 


Dollar 


Shippers 


Value 


Shippers 


Value 


Shippers 


i Value 


479 


$2 - 100 


55 


$700 - 800 




16 


$1400-1500 


305 


100 - 200 


43 


C00 - 900 




42 


1500-2000 


196 


200 - 300 


42 


500 - 1000 




21 


2000-2500 


146 


300 - 400 


29 


1000 - 1100 




8 


2500-3000 


133 


400 - 500 


37 


1100 - 1200 




4 


3000-3500 


99 


500 - 600 


22 


1200 - 1300 




5 


3500-4000 


34 


600 - 700 


16 


1300 - 1400 




1 


$5000 












1 


7259 


_ 






, 









MOOSE BROWSE SURVEY AND PELLET GROUP COUNT 
KENORA DISTRICT, 1964 

by 

R. B. Kail 

Conservation Officer 

Abstract 



On May 13, 1964 a moose browse survey and pellet 
group count was carried out at Maynard Lake in 
Kenora District. This was the second year this area 
was surveyed. As in the -previous survey, the area 
was 1,150 acres or 1.8 square miles. The survey 
method was as instructed by the Research Station, 
Maple. (April 1963). A summary of the browse tally 
indicated a total of 15,650 living stems per acre. 
This is an increase of 4,509 over the 1963 survey. 
From the pellet group counts it was estimated that 
the winter population on this area was 11.6 moose 
and 38.9 deer per square mile. Although the available 
living stems per acre has increased from the 1963 
survey, it is noted that the degree of utilization 
has decreased. The number of stems which have been 
killed or mutilated has increased from the 1963 count. 
It is recommended that a new area be chosen for the 
1965 moose browse survey. 



Introduction 

The Kenora District moose browse survey and population 
estimate was carried out on May 13, 1964. This survey was the 
second attempt at moose range assessment in this District. 

With minor adjustments to the bearings of the cruise lines 
and the inclusion of a deer pellet group count, the survey was done 
on the same area and by the same methods as in 1263. 

Area 

As described in the 1963 report, the survey area was 1,150 
acres located on the east side of Maynard Lake. This lake is part 
of the English River chain and is approximately 50 miles northeast 
of Kenora. 



Survey Crew 

(1) W. Charlton and D. Busch 

(2) T. Humber stone and K. Chambers 

(3) R. Hall and D. Ware 

Three survey crews were used in an attempt to complete 
the survey in one day. However, one of the lines was not completed 
on May 13 and a crew returned on May 20 to finish the line. 

Method 

The Otter aircraft (CF-ODX) was used to transport the 
survey crew of five cf the Kenora Fish and Wildlife staff and one 
summer student. 

Using the lake shore as one boundary, three two-man crews 
ran six cruise lines. As recommended in the 1963 report, the area 
was more systematically covered by running parallel lines which had 
a 30 chain offset. This method eliminated the shortage of plots 
\:hich occurred in the 1963 survey. 

Compass and pacing were used to run the lines, with a 
measured plot being tallied every five chains. The plot sizes and 
method of tally were as instructed by the Southern Research Station, 
Maple 

An attempt was made to assess the degree of competition 
between deer and moose on this area. This was done by counting the 
dear pellet groups on a plot of reduced size which fell within the 
moose pellet group plot. The size of the deer pellet plot was 
6.6 ft, by 66 ft. compared to 13.2 ft. by 66 ft. for moose. 

Ninety-three plots were tallied which was seven more than 
the minimum required 86 (64 x v /T7T~sqT~mT . » 36). 

The results of the browse survey are given in Table I. 

Population Estimate from Pellet Groups 

Moose 

The number of pellet groups on the 93 plots ranged from 
to 7 with the total number of groups being 97. The average number 
of groups per plot was 97/93 = 1.04. The number of days of pellet 
deposition was calculated as 220 from date of leaf fall. A daily 
deposition rate of 13 was used. 



(1) Average number of pellet groups per acre: 

Average per plot x 50 
1.04 x 50 = 52.0 

(2) Moose-days per square mile: 

Pellet groups per acre x 640 
Deposition rate (13) 

52 x 640 - 2560 
13 

(3) Moose per square mile: 

Moose-days per square mile 
Number of days of pellet deposition 

2560 ■ 11.6 or 12 moose per square mile 
220 

Confidence Limits 

The method used to determine the 95 per cent confidence 
levels from the frequency distribution of pellet groups is as 
follows: 

Pellet Groups per Acre 

No. plots required (0,5 per cent sample) 
64 x y/l.B sq, miles - 86 
No. plots sampled = 93 



Groups /Plot 


Frequency 




2 

X 


fx 2 


X 


f 


fx 





49 











1 


1 a 
JLQ 


18 


1 


18 


2 


12 


24 


4 


48 


3 


6 


18 


9 


54 


4 


5 


20 


16 


80 


5 


2 


10 


25 


50 


6 








36 





7 


1 


7 


49 


49 



93 97 299 



Sample Mean 



m = 



i (fx) 



= 21 - 1.043 pellet groups m 2 - 1.02 



Sample Standard Deviation 
df . - f - 1 - 92 



Sx 



i 



*-l 



- m' 



299 
92 



- 1.088 



1.47 pellet 
groups 



Sample Standard Error 



Sx 



Sx 



1.47 



,152 pellet groups 



v^T""" V 93 

Population Mean with Limits 

From the "t s{ table at t.05 for 92 degrees of freedom 

t.05 = 1.987 

Population mean = sample mean + t.05 (sample standard error) 

u - m + t.05 (Sx) 

= 1.043+ 1.987 (0.152) - 1.043+ 0.302 

At the 95 per cent confidence level there should be: 

Upper limit 1.043+ 0.302 - 1.345 pellet groups 
Lower limit 1.043 - 0.302 = 0.741 pellet groups 

Moose pellet groups per acres should then range from: 

50 x 1.345 - 67.25 to 
50 x 0.741 - 37.05 

Moose-days per square mile 



Range at t.05 

67.25 x 640 = 3311 tQ 



37.05 x 640 = 1324 moose-days/square mile 
13 



Moose per square mile 

Range at t.05 
3311 



220 

1824 
220 



15.05 to 



« 3.29 moose/square mile 



Therefore from the data collected in the area sampled 
we would expect an over-wintering population of 12 moose (or between 
8 and 15 to be 95 per cent certain) per square mile. 

Deer 

The number of pellet groups on the 93 plots ranged from 
to 9 with a total of 162 groups being tallied. The average 
number of groups per plot was 162/C 3 = 1.74. The number of days of 
pellet deposition was 220 and si daily deposition rate of 13 was used. 

(1) Average number of pellet groups per acre: 

Average per plot x 100 
1.74 x 100 » 174 

(2) Deer- days per square mile: 

Pellet groups per acre x 640 
Deposition rate (13) 

174 x 640 _ or/C . 1 

(3) Deer per square mile: 

Deer- days per square mile 



Number of days of pellet deposition 
8566.1 



220 



38.9 or 39 deer per sq. mile 



10 



Confidence Limits 



Method similar to that used for moose. 

Pellet Groups per Acre 

Plots required (0.25 per cent sample) ■ 86 
Plots sampled 93. 



Groups /Plot 

X 


Frequency 
f 


fx 


x2 


fx 2 





34 











1 


16 


16 


1 


16 


2 


14 


28 


4 


56 


3 


15 


45 


2 


135 


4 


5 


20 


16 


80 


5 


4 


20 


25 


100 


6 


4 


24 


36 


144 


7 








49 





8 








64 





9 


1 

93 


9 
162 


81 


81 
612 



Sample Mean 



m 



lifxj) 



162 
93 



Sample Standard Deviation 
df . = f-1 = 92 



Sx - 



^(fx 2 ) 



t £ " 1 

Sample Standard Error 



- m 2 = 



■m 



Sx = 



O.x, 



1.90 



1.742 




nr = 3.035 



3.035 = 1.90 pellet groups 



0.197 pellet groups 



v^T 



\f~9T 



11 



Population Mean with Limits 

d£. « 92 .\_t.05 - 1.987 

U - m+ t.05 (Sx) 

= 1.742 + 1.987 (0.197) = 1.742 + 0.391 

Therefore, 95 per cent confident of: 

Upper limit 1.742 + 0.391 - 2.133 pellet groups 
Lower limit 1.742 - 0.391 = 1.351 pellet groups 

Deer pellet groups per acre should then range from: 

100 x 2.133 - 213.30 to 
100 x 1.351 - 135.10 

Deer-days per square mile 

Range at t.05 
213.30 x 640 - 10494 to 
13 

135,10 x 640 * 6647 deer-days /square mile 
13 

Deer per square mile 

Range at t.05 

10494 



220 



47.70 to 



6647 
220 " 30.21 deer /square mile 

lie may assume then that this area over-wintered 39 deer 
per square mile and be 95 per cent confident that this figure 
did not exceed 48 nor fall below 30 deer per square mile. 

Observations 

From the summary of the browse survey a total of 15,650 
living stems per acre were calculated. This is an increase of 
4,509 stems per acre from the 11,141 of the 1963 survey. Although 
hazel still made up a large per cent of the available browse 
(40.57o), significant increases were noted in the per cent of balsam, 
poplar and birch available. This increase may be partially explained 
by the re-routing of the survey lines which necessarily fell over 
different terrain. It was noted in the 1963 survey that the area 



12 

was regenerating to these three species and this would seem to be 
a more logical answer to the noted increase in available stems. 

Mountain ash was tallied on 4 per cent of the plot this 
year, however, this species made up only .2 per cent of the available 
browse. 

The degree of utilization for each species ranged from 
7 per cent to 47.6 per cent. It is interesting to note that although 
balsam appears to have increased in supply by 11.7 per cent, the 
degree of utilization has decreased by 13.6 per cent. The same 
trend is true for several other species. Hazel was browsed 33.7 
per cent in 1963 compared to 47.6 per cent in 1964, an increase 
of 13.9 per cent. 

There has been a notable increase in the per cent of 
stems killed in all species, with the exception of dogwood. Poplar 
has increased from 10.9 per cent to 20.1 per cent killed. Maple 
has increased from 6.5 per cent to 13.5 per cent killed. 

The per cent of stems mutilated has also increased to a 
great degree in all species except hazel, which has decreased by 
14.3 per cent. 

It is noted that the estimate of the moose population has 
decreased from 16.3 animals per square mile in 1963 to 11.6 per 
square mile in 1964. This may be due, in part, to the apparent 
rapid build up of the deer herd in this area. This build up appears 
to be general in most parts of the Kenora District, particularly 
where the habitat has been altered by fire, logging or the spruce 
budworm . 

The indicated 38.9 deer per square mile are undoubtedly 
accounting for a large percentage of the killed and mutilated 
stems. 

There was no evidence of dead moose or deer on the plot. 
Comments 

During the month of January 1964, a standard 25 square 
mile aerial survey plot was layed out to include the Maynard Lake 
browse survey area. The aerial count of 22 moose and 30 deer would 
serve to confirm the size of the deer herd as indicated by the 
estimate from the pellet group count. 



13 



Although it may be of value to retain this Maynard Lake 
area for the purpose of assessing the degree of competition between 
moose and deer from the standpoint of increasing or decreasing 
numbers, it is felt that a survey every second or third year would 
be sufficient. 

It is felt that another area should be chosen for the 
purpose of a moose study area. More accurate and useful informa- 
tion would be forthcoming if deer were not present. 

Acknowledgments 

A vote of thanks is extended to all the staff who ably 
assisted in the collection of field data for this report. Special 
thanks go to W. Charlton, Fish and Wildlife Supervisor, for his 
helpful comments and K. Chambers, District Biologist, who carried 
out the statistical analysis. 



. 



14 



TABLE I 



SPECIES 


Freq. 
Index 


Living 
Stems 
per acre 


% of 

Stems 

Browsed 


% Stems 
Killed 


' % of 
7o Stems Available 
Mutilated Browse 


White Birch 


.41 


1,444 


14.5 


7.9 


16.0 


9.2 


Balsam 


.84 


3,818 


7.6 


.9 


4.6 


24.4 


Willow 


.06 


78 


27 . 3 


8.3 


4.5 


.5 


Maple 


.30 


1,160 




13.5 


35.8 


7.4 


Dogwood 


.33 


908 


32.4 


1.9 


52.3 


5.8 


Cherries 


.15 


156 


32.5 


9.1 


25.0 


.9 


Junebarry 


.16 


259 


43.8 


7.6 


58 • 9 


1.7 


Poplar 


.55 


1,469 


34.8 


20.1 


24.6 


9.4 


Hazel 


.66 


6,323 


47.6 


2.5 


21.3 


40.5 


fountain Ash 


.04 


35 


10.0 


9.1 


50.0 


.2 


15,650 


100.0 

















15 



Frequency Index (93 plots) 



Species 


Occurrence Plots 


Occurrence 


(%) 


White Birch 


38 


41 




Balsam 


73 


84 




Mountain Ash 


4 


4 




Willow 


6 


6 




Maple 


28 


30 




Dogwood 


31 


33 




Cherries 


14 


15 




Juneberry 


15 


16 




Poplar 


51 


55 




Hazel 


61 


66 





Living Stems per Acre by Species EL x 330 



93 








Species 


EL 


Living Stems per 


Acre 


White Birch 


407 


1,444 




Balsam 


1,076 


3,818 




Mountain Ash 


10 


35 




Willow 


22 


78 




Maple 


327 


1,160 




Dogwood 


256 


908 




Cherries 


40 


156 




Juneberry 


73 


2: 




Poplar 


414 


1,463 




Hazel 


1,782 


6,323 





16 



Per cent of Stems Browsed 



EB 
EL 



100 



Species 


EB 


EL 


Per cent Browsed 


White Birch 


59 


407 


14.5 




Balsam 


82 


1,076 


7.6 




Mountain Ash 


1 


10 


10.0 




Willow 


6 


22 


27.3 




Maple 


109 


327 


33.3 




Dogwood 


83 


256 


32.4 




Cherries 


13 


40 


32.5 




Juneberry 


32 


73 


43.8 




Poplar 


144 


414 


34,8 




Hazel 


849 


1,782 


47.6 





Per cent of Stems Killed EK 



EK + EL 



100 



Species 


EK 


EL 


Per cent Killed 


White Birch 


35 


407 


7.9 


Balsam 


10 


1,076 


.9 


fountain Ash 


1 


10 


9.1 


Willow 


2 


22 


8.3 


Maple 


51 


327 


13.5 


Dogwood 


5 


256 


1.9 


Cherries 


4 


40 


9.1 


Juneberry 


6 


73 


7.6 


Poplar 


104 


414 


20.1 


Hazel 


46 


1,732 


2.5 



Per cent of Steins Mutilated 



17 

EM 
EL 



x 100 



Species 


EM 


EL 


Per cent Mutilated 


White Birch 


65 


407 


16.0 


Balsam 


49 


1,076 


4.6 


Mountain Ash 


5 


10 


50.0 


Willow 


1 


22 


4.5 


Maple 


117 


327 


35.8 


Dogwood 


134 


256 


52.3 


Cherries 


10 


40 


25.0 


Juneberry 


43 


73 


58.9 


Poplar 


102 


414 


24.6 


Hazel 


379 


1,782 


21.3 



Per cent of Available Browse 



EL (single) 1QQ 
EL (total) 



■ 






Species 


EL 


% Available Browse 


White Birch 


407 


9.2 


Balsam 


1,076 


24.4 


Mountain Ash 


10 


.2 


Willow 


22 


.5 


Maple 


327 


7.4 


Dogwood 


256 


5.8 


Cherries 


40 


.9 


Juneberry 


73 


1.7 


Poplar 


414 


9.4 


Hazel 


1,782 


40.5 


4,407 


100.0 



.... 



18 
Maynard Lake Browse purvey - 1964 




Scale: 1" = 40 chn, 



19 



DUCK BANDING, KAPUSKASING DISTRICT, 1964 

by 
G. Mo Hendry, Biologist 



Abstract 

The initial banding operation at Pitukupi Lake resulted 
in 481 ducks being banded. Eight species were represented 
in the captures. A total of 246 black ducks and 215 
mallards accounted for 51.1 per cent and 44.7 per cent 
of the new birds, respectively. Six different banding 
stations were operated from Aug. 20 to Sept. 13, 1964, 
for a total of 150 trap-days. All attempts at trap- 
ping diving ducks were unsuccessful. 



Description of Area 

Pitukupi Lake is a eutrophic lake with an area of 7.8 
square miles. The northern section of the lake is deep (40 feet 
max.) with a gravel bottom while the southern section is shallow 
(6 feet max.) and has a thick layer of muck over the gravel. The 
trap sites are located between 84°06 { W., 50°41 f N. and 84°12* W., 
50037* N. 

The most important of the emergent aquatics is wild rice 
(Zizania aquatica ) which covers an area of about 200 acres in the 
south end of the lake and which is the primary attractant to the 
waterfowl. Other common emergent s include bulrush (Scirpus sp.), 
reed grass ( Phragmites sp.) and arrowhead (Sagittaria sp.). The 
yellow water lily (Nuphar sp.) is the only floating aquatic pres- 
ent. The abundant growth of submerged aquatics includes large- 
leaf pondweed ( Potamoget on amplifolius ) 9 sago pondweed (Potamogeton 
pectinatus ) and water milfoil ( Myriophyllum sp.). 

The most numerous tree species surrounding the lake are 
alder (Alnus sp.) and black spruce ( Picea mariana). Other species 
present include white cedar (Thuja occiden tali s), balsam poplar 
(Populus balsamifera ) , trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides ), 
white birch (Betula papyrifera ) and dwarf birch ( Betula glandulosa ), 

Materials and Methods 

Six traps of the lily pad design were set up on the sites 
indicated (see map.) These were of the large multiple entrance 
type as suggested by Gibson (1964). Traps Alpha, Bravo and Charlie 
were constructed on gravel and hard sand while Dog, Echo and Fox 
traps were built on the semi-floating vegetation that surrounds the 
lake. 



20 

Traps and Collecting Box 

All six traps measured 22,6 feet by 14 a 3 feet (see 
diagram at back) e The sides were constructed of two inch by two 
inch mesh chicken wire which was stapled to the five feet high, 
spruce supporting posts. Chicken wire of one inch by one inch 
mesh was used as roofing . In the end of the trap nearest the 
shore s a two foot by three foot hole was cut through which the 
ducks could be driven to the portable collecting box. Doors were 
constructed to 2 x 4 f s and measured five feet by two feet. These 
were placed in the side of the trap furthest from the hole for the 
collecting box„ Each funnel entrance was four inches wide and 
closed off at a height of ten inches above the water line. These 
traps were designed from the trap illustrated in diagram 24, 
Section B of the Guide to W aterfowl Banding . 

To remove the birds from any trap the collecting box 
would be placed in the opening at the end of the trap and the 
trigger for the drop-door, set. On entering the trap, the banders 
would drive the birds into the box; the front door of the box was 
then dropped by pulling the trigger,, The ducks could then be 
easily removed through the two sliding doors in the top of the box. 

Baiting 

The selection of cracked corn., the only bait used through* 
out the project, was based on the findings of Gibson (1964). Each 
trap site was prebaited with approximately 75 pounds of corn 
before the traps were erected. Once the traps were completed and 
the birds had started to feed, the entrances were closed (Aug. 19). 
From this date to the completion of the project a total of 50 
pounds of corn per day was divided among the six traps. 

Result;; 

A total of 481 ducks were banded and released at the 
conclusion of the 19 64 banding operation (Table I)„ After the 
traps had been erected, a seven day period elapsed before any 
evidence cf feeding was observed. From Aug. 19 when the traps were 
closed until Aug„ 24, only six birds were banded. This was due 
to the fact that the ducks hadn't started feeding in large enough 
groups when the traps were closed. Daily catches after this date 
ranged from four to a high of 45 ducks. Fox trap was the most 
productive throughout the project with 226 ducks (47 per cent of 
total) being captured. Echo aid Dog traps collected 164 (34%) and 
91 (197o) ducks, respectively. 



21 



TABLE I - Species, Sex, and Age Composition of Ducks Banded - IS 64 - 



Species 


Adult 


Immature 




% 


Irnra/100 




Male 


Female 


Male 


Female 


Total 


Immature s 


Ad. 9 


Black 


110 


34 


54 


48 


246 


41.5 


300 


(Anas rubripes) 
















Mallard 


30 


23 


96 


66 


215 


75.3 


704 


(Anas platyrhynchos) 
















Black x Mallard 


5 


- 


- 


1 


6 


16.7 


aa 


B.W.Teal 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


100.0 


wm 


(Anas disc or s) 
















G.W. Teal 


- 


1 


1 


1 


3 


66.7 


200 


&nas carolinensis) 
















American Widgeon 


- 


1 


2 


1 


4 


75.0 


300 


(Mareca americana) 
















Ring-necked Duck 


1 


■M 


- 


- 


1 


- 


- 


(Nyroca collaris) 
















Pintail 


3 


1 


M 


1 


5 


20.0 


100 


(Anas acuta) 
























, 4S1 







Live decoys were placed in Dog trap on Sept. 1 in a 
successful attempt to start the birds feeding in that area. Once 
feeding had begun, the use of these live decoys was discontinued 
since they failed to increase the daily catch. We were also 
concerned with possible injury to the ducks due to prolonged 
confinement. 



Although diving ducks were in the area our attempts to 
trap them failed. Traps Alpha, Bravo and Charlie were situated 
in the deeper section of the lake, which the "divers" frequented, 
but failed to attract the birds. Several goldeneyes were noticed 
around the three productive traps but wouldn't feeding on the corn. 

Throughout the project a total of 14 ducks escaped from 
the traps. Nine of these escaped from Dog trap on Sept. 9 through 
a break in the chicken wire. On inspection in was found that the 
wire underwater was quite brittle. Subsequent daily inspections 
of all traps reduced the number of escapes. 

Only two ducks died during the project. Both birds were 
repeats. One mallard drowned in a trap when it became entangled in 
the chicken wire. One black duck drowned as a result of overcrowding 
at one end of the collecting box. 



22 



A total of 1051 ducks were retrapped. Of these 586 were 
blacks and 457 were mallards. The highest individual day's catch 
of repeats was 143 ducks on Sept. 12. Seven foreign retraps were 
encountered during the 1964 banding operation. 

Water depths at the trap entrances ranged from 7.8 to 
40.0 inches at the deep ends and from 1.8 to 31.0 inches at the 
ends nearest shore. 

Conclusions 

Since black ducks and mallards accounted for 95.8 per cent 
of all birds banded, it is felt that the age ratios of these species 
are the most significant. Of the 246 black ducks banded only 102 
(41.57o)were immatures. This ratio appears low when compared to 
other banding age ratios found in Ontario. Gibson (1963), Gawiey 
(1964) and Gibson (1~64) found black duck age ratios of 77.1 per cent, 
90.8 per cent and 90.9 per cent immatures, respectively, as a result 
of banding operations. However, Bellrose et al (1961:469) state ... 
"because juveniles and adults do not follow identical migration 
schedules or routes, age ratios showed seasonal and regional 
variations." To test for any evidence of seasonal variation the 
weekly change in age composition of banded black ducks was calculated 
(Fig. I). 



100 






20 



C 



BLACK. . 




IV, 
III 

^ui/i/T 
iiii/iiii/i: 



Jill Juveniles///// 

/////////////////// 
//////i /////, ////// 



20-26 27-2 3-9 



AUGUST 



■J o 



SEPTEMBER 



100 



80 



o 



P-J 



60 



40 



20 








MALLARD 



/////// 
ll/l/l/ll 

Miir-K/iiiiiiiiiui 
iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiin 

HI Juveniles/////// 

//////////////////// 

Mlllllllllllllllllll 

llllllllllllllllllll 

ll lllhllltlhllllll 
20-26 27-2 3-9 10-13 

AUGUST SEPTEMBER 



Fig* I* - Weekly juvenile-adult composition of mallard and black 
ducks banded at Pitukupi Lake in 1964. 



23 



These data indicate an exodus of mallard and black ducks in the 
last week of August. However, a subsequent influx occurred only 
in mallards indicating that perhaps the majority of black duck 
juveniles had already flown south . At the time of this writing 
we have not been able to gather any data on regional age ratio 
variations in 1964 e It appears , therefore, that the low age ratio 
exhibited by black ducks banded during this operation is a result 
of seasonal and perhaps regional variations and does not necessarily 
reflect an unbiased estimate of waterfowl production for this species. 

Data obtained from retrapping mallard and black ducks 
previously trapped and banded at Pitukupi Lake indicated that the 
banding traps were selective for the latter species (Table 2). 



TABLE 2 - Number of Mallard and Black Ducks Trapped and Banded and 
the Tar cent Retrapped during the 1964 Operation at Pitukupi Lake. 



Mallard 




Black Duck 


Number 


Per cent 


Numbe 


r 


Per cent 


Trapped Retrapped 
and 


Retrapped 


Trapped 

and 
Banded 


Retrapped 


Retrapped 


21.5 457 


212.6 


246 


586 


233.2 



Recommen atio 

I. Due to the fact that Alpha, Bravo and Charlie traps failed to 
capture a single duck 5 all banding activities in these areas should 
be discontinued next year. Two of these traps should be relocated 
in the couth end of the lake; the third trap being used for 
maintenance purposes. Five active traps would result in approximately 
700 ducks bein^ banded in 1965 . 



2o Since the traps worked well this year, their basic design 
should remain unchanged. 

3. The one inch chicken wire mesh in the collecting box should 
be replaced by two inch nesh. Many ducks damaged their bills in the 
smaller mesh this year. A reduction in the dimensions of the box 
to 4 8 xl-l/2'x3 s would not only facilitate the removal of the birds 
but also reduce the weight and hence ease handling. 



24 

4. Immediately after being erected, each trap should be baited 
with 100 pounds of corn. They should then be left open for a 
period of at least one week to allow the birds to become accus- 
tomed to the traps and to commence feeding. 

5. Checking the traps twice daily and removing the captured birds 
failed to increase the daily catch and actual disturbed the ducks 
sufficiently so as to reduce the daily catch. A single daily check 
of the traps followed by immediate baiting is recommended for next 
year. Careful examination of the traps for holes etc. should 
reduce the number of escapes considerably. If predation becomes a 
problem in the future, twice daily checks could be warranted. 

6. The use of ducks as live decoys in the traps is recommended. 
However, once a trap is producing the continued use of such decoys 
is unwarranted as it fails to increase the catch significantly. 

7. In the future, banding efforts should be continued on Pitukupi 
Lake unless a more suitable location is found. 

Summary 

A total of 481 ducks were banded during the summer of 
1964 at Pitukupi Lake; of these, 246 were blacks and 215 were 
mallards. Eight species were represented, the large, multi- 
entrance traps used were very productive; one such trap captured 
226 ducks. Three of the six traps failed to capture a single 
bird. 

Acknowledgment s 

Appreciation is extended to Messrs. P. Millette, I. R. Battye 
and Conservation Officer F. F. Legace for their assistance in this 
project. The success of the banding program is due largely to their 
efforts. 

References Cited 

Addy, C. E. et al 1956. Guide to Waterfowl Banding. U. S. Fish 
& Wildlife Service, Laurel, Maryland. 

Bellrose, F. C. et al 1961, Sex Ratios and Age Ratios in North 
American Ducks. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 27(6). 
474 pp. 

Gawley, D. J. 1964. Duck Banding, Gogama District, 1963. Resource 
Mgt. Rept. No. 74, March. 



25 

Gibson, B. H. 1963. Report on Waterfowl Banding Project Completed 
at Arm Lake, Geraldton District, Summer of 1962. Resource 
Mgt. Rept. No. 67, January. 

1964. Geraldton District Duck Banding Project - 

1963. Resource Mgt. Rept. No. 74, March. 

APPENDIX I 

COSTS 

Cost of the 1964 Duck Banding Project, exclusive of 
permanent staff salaries, provisions, outboard gas and trans- 
portation is as follows: 

Six traps 14. 3 f x 22, 6 ! - 750 of 2 inch chicken wire $ 54.45 

- 300 of 1 inch chicken wire 41.38 

Cost of Wire $95.83 

- 166' of 2 x 2's 8.30 

- 84' of 2 x 4's 6.00 

- 168* of 1 x 6's 11.76 

- 2 pc, of plywood 2'x3 f 4. 20 

Cost of Wood $ 30.26 

- Miscellaneous (hinges staples, 

etc. ) 3.96 

Feed - 2,000 pounds of cracked corn 88.00 

Labour - one man, 33 days @ 14.95/dy 493.35 

- one man, 18 days @ 12.50/dy 225.00 

$718.00 

Total Cost = $936.40 

No. of ducks banded = 481 
Cost per duck banded = $1.95 



26 



Shore 



Collecting Box 



Removal 
doors 



Drop 
door 



7-1/2 



Duck entrance 
(6" wide) 




/\ 



~^ 



V 



u 




Support post 



R 



7-1/2 



6» 



SCALE: 1 in. -4ft 




7F" 



Door 



22.i 



A^L 



Duck entrance 
(6 :c wide) 



Spruce post 



<r 



L4 • $1. 



-> 



Diagram Showing Design and Dimensions of Traps and Collecting Box 



■ ' .'; v "' 






v 



I ; 



27 




PITUKUPI LAKE BANDING AREA. 
Base Map Number 505841 
D Locations of Traps 
Scale: 2 rai.=l inch 



23 



DUCK HUNTING IN THE LINDSAY DISTRICT, 1963 

by 
E. T. Cox, Biologist 



Abstract 

Samples of hunters checked in the field on opening 
day showed a bag of 1.2 ducks per hunter. The data 
obtained in the remainder of September and in the 
months of October, November and December show, 
respectively, figures of 1.6, 0.4, 1.1, and 0.2 ducks 
per hunter. The main species contained in a collection 
of 312 duck wings were wood ducks (61), black ducks 
(61), mallards (58), blue-winged teal (48), and green- 
winged teal (30). Detailed separations by county of 
the hunting effort and bag during different portions 
of the open season (Tables I - V) and of the wing 
collection (Table VI) are presented. Age, sex and the 
ratios of immatures to adults are given for the six 
most abundant species in the collection. Some compar- 
isons are made with District data from previous years. 



Introduction 

The species are referred to by their common names (after 
Peterson, 1963). 

Beginning in 1958, an annual opening day check of waterfowl 
hunters has been made by Fish and Wildlife and Parks personnel. 
Opening day results are considered valuable for comparison since 
the areas checked tend to remain the same year after year. During 
recent years there has also been an effort to gather more informa- 
tion on waterfowl hunting after the opening day. 

Since 1960 Darlington Provincial Park has offered shooting 
to hunters for a daily blind fee. Hunters are requested to fill out 
a special daily report form. All Durham County data are obtained 
from this Park. 

The data from Presqu'ile Provincial Park and the rest of 
the Lindsay District are recorded on the "Waterfowl Checking Station 
Card" (Form H-35). A seasonal permit is required to hunt waterfowl 
at Presqu'ile. The writer feels that the present card information 
is valuable for hunter success figures and for species identification. 



29 



Attempts to age and sex ducks in the field have been discontinued. 
It is hoped that the duck wing collections, started in 1961, will 
provide reliable data from a much larger sample. 

Please note that there was a daily bag limit of only two 
wood ducks in 1963. 

HUNTER SUCCESS - Hunting -data are presented by county and tabled 
according to opening day, the remainder of September, October, 
November, and December. The Northumberland data are largely from 
Presqu'ile Provincial Park and Rice Lake. 

DUCK WING COLLECTION - Specimens were identified as to species, 
sex and age by the writer with the assistance of Conservation 
Officer J. A. Robertson. Preliminary keys prepared by Carney and 
Geis were used with some reference to Carney and Geis, 1960. The 
results of this work are presented in Tables 6 and 7. Collections 
of less than ten specimens of one species were not further separated. 

No Haliburton County specimens were collected. 

COMMENTS - Duck hunting on opening day 1963 appears to have been 
only fair. A comparison of opening day bag per hunter over the 
last four years is given below. 

Ducks per Hunter by County 



Year 


Durham 


Hali. 


North 


Peter. 


Vict. 


1963 


2.3 


m 


1.3 


1.3 


0.8 


1962 


1.2 


- 


1.9 


1.0 


1.9 


1961 


1.7 


- 


- 


- 


1.5 


1960 


1.1 


1.8 


1.6 


2.8 


0.7 



The scanty information available on the remainder of the 
1963 open season is the most comprehensive yet recorded for the 
Lindsay District. Wood ducks, black ducks, mallards and the two 
species of teal apparently provided the bulk of the hunters' bag. 
A similar finding was made from the 1961 wing collection 
(Cringan, 1962). 

Unfortunately all 1963 samples were under the desirable 
minimum of 100 specimens per species. However, the ratios of 
juveniles to adults are worth noting. Wood duck* samples in the 
last three years have shown considerably more adult males than adult 
females. The number of inmatures per adult for this species is shown 



30 

below by year. 

1961 - 5.3 young per adult (Cringan, 1962) 

1962 - 1.5 young per adult 

1963 - 1.9 young per adult 

In 1963, black ducks and mallards show, respectively, 
4.7 and 8.2 young per adult. Blue-winged teal show 7.9 and 
green-winged teal 5.8 young per adult. 

One of the main findings of Bellrose et al (1961), was 
.iat juveniles were "more vulnerable to hunting than adults; the 
vulnerability differential varied with place, time of hunting 
season, year and species." These findings, obtained in central and 
north-central United States, are probably applicable to southern 
Ontario; thus, the calculated ratios should not be considered as 
direct measurements of reproduction although they are probably good 
indicators. 

References 

Bellrose, F. C, et al 1961, Sex Ratios and Age Ratios in North 
American Ducks. Illinois Natural History Survey, 
27:391-474. 

Carney, S. and A. Geis. Preliminary Keys, Age and Sex of Duck Wings 
Mimeo, Unpublished. 

Carney, S. and A. Geis, 1960. Mallard Age and Sex Determination 
From Wings c J. Wildl. Mgt., 24 (4): 372-381. 

Cringan, A., 1961. Duck Wing Collection, Southern Ontario, 1961. 
Unpublished. 

Peterson, R. T., 1963. A Field Guide to the Birds. Houghton 
Mifflin Company, Boston. 









!.'" 



• •• V 



.. . i :.,.«...j :. 



, " • ■ r i 






"f 1 



31 



TABLE I - Duck Hunting Effort and Bag - Opening Day (Sept. 21) 





1 


• 

•H 

& 


• 
U 


• 
u 

0) 
4J 
0) 


» 

O 


Totals 


Hunters 


22 


- 


78 


56 


71 


227 


Hunter -hours 


- 


- 


528 


372 


268 


- 


Dogs 


- 


- 


2 


1 


3 


6 


Mallard 


- 


- 


15 


24 


5 


44 


Black duck 


- 


- 


14 


23 


7 


44 


Blue-winged teal 


- 


- 


26 


6 


29 


61 


Wood duck 


- 


- 


4 


13 


13 


30 


Green-winged teal 


- 


- 


24 


3 


4 


31 


Pintail 


- 


- 


10 


- 


- 


10 


Others 


- 


- 


10 


1 


2 


13 


Total ducks 


50* 


- 


103 


70 


60 


283 


Ducks per hunter 


2.3 


- 


1.3 


1.3 


0.8 


1.2 


Hours per duck 


_ 


_ 


5.1 


5.3 


4.5 


_ 



* unidentified 



N.B. - Hali. - Haliburton; North. - Northumberland; 
Peter. - Peterborough; Vict. - Victoria. 



■:. i 



32 
TABLE II - Duck Hunting Effort and 3ag - Renainder of Sept 







1 

u 

Q 


• 


North. 


u 

U 

0) 
(X, 


. 

U 

•H 

> 


Totals 


Hunters 


99 


- 


3 


30 


25 


157 


Hunter -hours 




■V 


- 


17 


73 


74 


- 


Dogs 




- 


- 


- 


4 


5 


9 


Mallard 




mm 


- 


3 


28 


2 


33 


Black duck 




- 


- 


6 


23 


•» 


29 


Blue-winged 1 


teal 


- 


- 


- 


- 


2 


2 


Wood duck 




- 


- 


- 


16 


1 


17 


Green-winged 


teal 


- 


- 


- 


9 


1 


10 


Pintail 




- 


- 


4 


MB 


- 


4 


Others 




- 


- 


1 


- 


3 


4 


Total ducks 




153 


- 


14 


76 


9 


252 


Ducks per hunter 


1.5 


- 


4.7 


2.5 


0.4 


1.6 


Hours per duck 


- 


- 


1.2 


1.0 


S .2 


- 





IT :•]■■.. •' 



: 



-. . 



. f ■ 



' 



:[ 



: . ' : 



■.. .-■■- i :.!■ ■■•>"' 



33 



TABLE III - DUCK HUNTING EFFORT AND BAG - October 





e 

■£3 

u 

Q 

132 


Hali. 


4 

u 
o 
55 


i 


• 

u 

o 

•r-l 
> 


Totals 


Hunters 


5 


- 


- 


9 


146 


Hunter -hours 


- 


5 


- 


- 


18 


- 


Dogs 


- 


1 


- 


- 


2 


3 


Total ducks 


55 


1 


- 


- 


8 


64 


Ducks per hunter 


0.4 


0.2 


- 


- 


0.9 


0.4 


Hours per duck 


- 


5.0 


- 


- 


2.2 


- 
















TABLE IV - DUCK HUNTING EFF 


CRT AND 


BAG - 


November 










£2 
CO 


£ 


u 


• 
u 
o 

4J 

P-i 


• 

u 
o 


Totals 


Hunters 


86 


- 


- 


- 


4 


90 


Hunter -hours 


- 


- 


- 


- 


17 


- 


Dogs 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1 


1 


Total ducks 


102* 


M 


- 


- 


1 


103 


Ducks per hunter 


1.2 


- 


«• 


- 


0.3 


1.1 


Hours per duck 


- 


- 


- 


- 


4.3 


«• 


* at least 35 


mergansers 










TABLE V - DUCK HUNTING EFFORT AND 


BAG - : 


December 






- 




CO 

u 

Q 


• 

£ 


• 

4J 
U 


8 

4J 

CM 


5! 


Totals 


Hunters 


34 


- 


- 


- 


- 


34 


Total ducks 


6 


- 


- 


- 


- 


6 


Ducks per hunter 


0.2 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.2 



34 



TABLE VI - Source and Species Composition of 1963 
Duck Wing Collection 





Numb 


sr of 


Specimens 


by County 


Species 


D 
CO 

rC 
U 

Q 


• 

4J 
U 

O 


« 

u 
3 


• 

V 

o 

•H 
> 


CO 
4J 
O 

H 


Date Collected 


Wood duck 


- 


1 


27 


26 


61* 


Sept. 21- Oct, 22 


Black duck 


9 


19 


25 


7 


61* 


Sept.21-Nov.25 


Mallard 


6 


29 


17 


6 


58 


Sept.21-Cct.24 


Blue-winged teal 


2 


24 


6 


16 


48 


Sept.21-Cct.15 


Green- winged teal 


1 


22 


5 


2 


30 


Sept.21-Nov. 9 


Pintail 


3 


8 


- 


1 


12 


Sept. 21-30 


Am, widgeon (baldpate) 1 


7 


- 


4 


12 


Sept. 21-25 


Ring-necked duck 


2 


1 


- 


3 


6 


Sept.21-Cct.15 


Hooded merganser 


- 


- 


2 


3 


5 


Sept. 21- Oct. 10 


Greater scaup duck 


1 


2 


- 


1 


4 


Sept.21-Oct.22 


Gadwall 


- 


3 


- 


- 


3 


Sept. 21-25 


Surf scoter 


m 


_ 


.. 


2 


2 


Oct. 9 



Lesser scaup duck 

Buf f lehear! 

Redhead 

Black-mallard 
hybrids 

Shovel er 

American 

goldencye duck 



1 
2 
2 



Oct. 22 & Nov. 11 



Oct. 31 



2 Sept. 21** 

2* 

1 Sept. 25 

1 Nov. 5 



TOTALS 26 122 82 72 312* 

* specimens with no designated county included 
** convictions registered 



•-■ 



35 



TABLE VII - Sex and Age Ratios from 1963 Duck Wing Collections 



Number of Wing Specimens 



Species 



Un- Unaged Adults 
usable <f 5 



Immature s 



Ratio 
Immatures to 



cf 9 cf 9 Total Adult Females 



Wood duck 



13 



1 10 4 



Black duck 4 

Mallard 9 

Blue -winged teal 
Green- winged teal 2 
Am. widgeon (baldpate)O 
Pintail 




2 



6 




1 

1 

1 

6 



5 5 

1 4 

3 5 

4 

1 3 



17 10 

20 21 

21 18 
16 7 

4 4 



27 

47 

41 
39 



23 



o 



6.8 
9.4 
10.2 
7.8 
5.8 
2.7 







•• r 



36 



OPENING DAY OF THE WATERFOWL SEASON 
SEPTEMBER 26, 1964, LAKE SXKCQE DISTRICT 

by 
J, S. Dor land 
Assistant Senior Conservation Officer 

Abstract 

One thousand forty- eight hunters were checked in 
fourteen of the numerous duck hunting areas of the 
District on the opening day, (excluding Dufferin 
County). This army of hunters bagged a total of 
697 ducks for an average bag per hunter of ,66 ducks. 
Man-hours to kill one duck took 6.7. Weather conditions 
were only fair with some light rain falling in a few 
areas around 8:00 a.m. The tally for the day was, in 
a sense, a replica of 1963, with more hunters, more 
time taken to kill a duck, and less to take home. 



Introduction 

Good coverage of waterfowl areas was obtained this year. 
With the help of the R.C.M.P. in boats and cars, sixteen conserva- 
tion officers and biologists covered such prominent waterfowl areas 
as Matchedash Bay, Holland Marsh, Cook's Bay, Minesing Swamp, 
Lake Dalrymple, Little Mud Lake, Duff in Creek, Little Lake, Mud 
Lake and other lesser areas within the District, 

Results 

The total number of hunters checked was up some 15 per cent 
over the previous year. Ducks per hunter and man-hours to kill a 
duck, however, have decreased 18.6 per cent and increased 11.9 per 
cent, respectively, from the previous year. Of the total number of 
birds reported shot 14.3 per cent were reported not retrieved by 
some hunters, however, 11 per cent of these cripples were retrieved 
by other hunters. See Chart #1. In the Holland Marsh, where last 
year a crippling loss of 32 per cent was indicated, this year the 
crippling loss shows a decline of 75 per cent as only 28 ducks 
were reported lost as against 131 in 1963. Cripples in the Minesing 
Swamp, however, were very high being near 2/3 of the harvest. 

Hunters 1 bags indicated that male ducks predominated 
only slightly over females. Blue-winged teal again made up the 
largest percentage of species with green-winged teal and the wood 
duck tying for second place. The mallard has now dropped to fourth, 



, : ':<-' 






37 



being replaced by the green-winged in third, and the black in fifth 
place. See Chart #2* Although the wood duck shows an increase in 
the District figures, only a few were found in the Matchedash 3ay 
area. 

Scaup, however, show a considerable increase over the 
1SS3 harvest, when only twelve were reported in the District. 

Best harvest reports are from the smaller and less known 
waterfowl areas such as Lake Dalrymple, Kettles Lake and Midland 
Point, where 89 hunters in 237 man-hours harvested 100 ducks for an 
average of 1.12 ducks per hunter. It took 2.37 man-hours of hunting 
to shoot one duck. Statistics from these areas are lumped together 
with other areas and shown in Chart #1 under Remainder (10 areas). 

At the four check points along the west side of the 
Holland Marsh, approximately eight out of every ten hunters 
checked were new Canadians. 

Comments 

From our figures this year it is apparent that the wood 
duck is increasing considerably in this area. The unusual low water 
in Matchedash and Holland Marsh, depleting much of the marsh of its 
hatching assets, no doubt was a special factor this year in the 
continuing decline of the black and mallard. The gradual increasing 
hunting pressure on opening days in recent years by many hunters, 
who's knowledge of the range of the gun in their hands apparently 
is negligible, may soon turn cur opening days of duck hunting into 
something comparable with Chinese holidays. 



38 



CHART #1 



DUCK HUNTING STATISTICS OPENING BAY SEPTEMBER 26, 1964 

LAKE SIMCOE DISTRICT 





krea 


Hunters 


Hunter- 
hours 


Harvest 


Bird 
per 
Hunter 


Man-hours 
per 
Bird 


Holland Marsh 
Cook's Bay 


417 


2141 


202 


,50 


10.2 


L v 3atchedash 
Bay 


211 


1330 


148 


.70 


9.0 


Minesing 
Swamp 


62 


85 


21 


.34 


4.0 


Cemainder 
(10 areas) 


358 


1153 


319 


.89 


3.6 


Totals 


1040 


4709 


697 


.66 


6.7 





Cont ' d 





Area 


Cripples 


Hunters 
using 
Dogs 


Average 
Hours 
Per Hunter 


Lost 


% 


Found 


ear 
fa 


Holland Marsh 
Cook's Bay 


28 


13,4 


1 


e 


14 


5.1 


Matchedash 
Bay 


17 


11.5 


1 


.7 


10 


6.3 


Mine sing 
Swamp 


15 


71.4 






4 


1.4 


Remainder 
(10 areas) 


57 


17.7 


11 


3.4 


23 


3.2 


Totals 


117 


16.8 


13 


1.9 


51 


4.5 



... . _ 






39 



CE^RT #2 



Species and Sex of Waterfowl Checked 
Lake Simcoe District - Sept„ 26, 1964 



Species 

Black 

Mallard 



Green-winged teal 

Blue-uinged teal 

Wood duck 

Pintail 

Scaup 

Redhead 

American Widgeon (Baldpate) 

Shoveler 

Gadwall 

Merganser e 



Male 
31 
60 



55 



108 
63 



3 
16 



Fenale 

47 

51 

64 

74 

66 

8 

21 

1 

6 

1 



1 
4 



Total 

78 

ill 

129 

182 

129 

11 

37 

1 

8 

1 

1 

9 



Per cent 

15.9 

18.5 

26.1 

18.5 

1.6 

5.3 

,2 

1.1 

.2 

.2 

1.3 



Total 



353 



o. 



344 



697 



CHART #3 



40 



Species Harvested September 26, 1964 



Black G.W. B.W. Wood 

Area Duck Mallard Teal Teal Duck Pintail Scaup 



Holland 
Marsh 



24 



34 



47 52 



26 



Matchedash 
Bay 


29 


29 


39 


35 


5 


4 


4 


Mines ing 
Swamp 


1 


4 


4 


1 


11 






Remainder 
10 Areas 


24 


44 


39 


94 


87 


2 


24 





78 


111 129 182 


129 11 


37 


Cont ! d 




Area 


Redhead 


Gadwall Shovel er 


Am. Widgeon 
(Baldpate) 


Mergansers 



Holland 
Marsh 

Matchedash 
Bay 

Mine sing 
Swamp 



Remainder 
10 Areas 



11 1 


5 


5 


210 






2 


147 


21 




3 


2 


319 



8 



9 



697 



"» i c 






r i' 



41 



THE PRESENT STATUS OF SHARP- TAILED GROUSE 
IN THE KENORA DISTRICT - 1963 



by 
R. W. McGillivray 
Conservation Officer 



Abstract 



A survey to locate coveys and dancing grounds of 
sharp- tailed grouse carried out in the Kenora District 
between January 1, 1963 and January 31, 1964 produced 
a total of 285 sharp- tails, an aggregate of 31 sightings 
made on 26 locations. This is an increase of 204 
birds over the 81 observed in 1962. The increase is 
probably due to an increase in effort to locate the 
coveys, rather than a total increase in population 
numbers. Coveys ranged in size from 1 to 40 (approx.) 
birds, with the average covey size being 9.2 birds 
per covey. Seven new dancing grounds were located to 
bring the total of known, active dancing grounds to 
eight. A new census technique employing the use of 
a helicopter was tried and proved to be unsuccessful 
at this tine. Breeding success information was 
limited with only 2 broods being observed. The increase 
in the size of fall coveys over those observed during 
the spring, may indicate that the population has in- 
creased this year. Hunting pressure is considered 
to be light, with only eight birds known to have been 
bagged in 35 man-hours of hunting. The fate of the 
sharp -tailed grouse is undetermined in this area and 
will depend on what happens to the existing habitat. 



Introduction 

This report is a continuance of a survey to locate coveys 
and dancing grounds of sharp- tailed grouse in the Kenora District. 

Previously, work had been carried out by A. 1. Glsen 
in 1959, and by the writer in 1962. Sightings were recorded only 
in the Dryden - Vermilion Bay area. As occasional reports of 
sharp- tails were received from other parts of the District, it was 
decided this year to extend the survey to obtain District -wide 
coverage. 



42 



Four sharp- tail specimens collected during the hunting 
season were sent to Mr, H. Lumsden of the Research Branch, Maple. 
These specimens were identified as Prairie Sharp- tailed Grouse 
Pedioecetes phasi anellus campestris. 

Work on the survey commenced in January, 1963 with a 
concentrated effort being made to locate dancing grounds. The 
work was interrupted at the end of April and from this time only 
periodic work was carried out, up to the end of January, IS 64. 

Method 

1. Early morning and evening auto patrols made along township 
roads were directed to locations where sharp- tail coveys had 
been observed on previous occasions. 

Residents in these areas were contacted in regard to locating 
dancing grounds. This method proved to be rewarding, as it 
aided in locating four of the seven new grounds. The remain- 
ing grounds were located by personal observations made during 
the patrols. 

2. The District staff was requested to report all sightings of 
sharp- tails made while carrying out their regular work. 

New Census Technique Tried 

Using a helicopter, an attempt was made to develop a 
new census technique. It was felt that sharp-tail coveys could 
be flushed by flying at a low altitude (20 to 30 feet) over large 
muskegs and open areas. 

The first attempt was made on the afternoon of August 29, 
during the a routine flight. The test area was the large muskeg 
in Revel Township. Flying at an altitude of approximately 20 feet 
on a wandering course over the area, we were successful in flushing 
a covey of five sharp- tails. 

A similar flight that afternoon flushed four sharp- tails 
from an open area in Zealand Township. 

Feeling that this method had possibilities, another 
flight was made on September 16. Flying over established locations 
of sharp-tail coveys, it was planned to catch the birds in open 
areas, flush them, and obtain an accurate count. After three hourp 
of flying from dawn to ten o'clock, no birds had been observed. 
From two o'clock until five o'clock only one covey of nine sharp- 
tails was flushed from the large muskeg in Hartman Township. 



43 



In two of the three instances when coveys were flushed, 
it was noted that the coveys held tight until the helicopter was 
directly over them. In the other instance, the covey flushed well 
ahead of the machine. In all cases, the birds flushed in the dir- 
ection of the line of flight of the helicopter making it possible 
to obtain a full count of all the birds in the covey. 

The results of the two tests made were somewhat dis- 
appointing, but it is felt that this method would be relatively 
successful if correlated with the proper time of year, such as 
early spring or late fall. 

Although the use of this technique is impractical and 
uneconomical for this area, it may be of value when an intensive 
population census is required on a large area, in a short period of 
time. 

Sightings 

A total of 285 sharp-tailed grouse was observed in the 
Dryden - Vermilion Bay area during the period January, 1963 to the 
end of January, 1964. This is an increase of 204 birds over the 81 
observed in 1362. This increase is probably due to an increase in 
effort to locate the coveys, rather than a total increase in popu- 
lation numbers. 

The number of sightings made was aided by records 
submitted by members of the district staff and, as in the past, all 
sightings, with the exception of one from Minaki, came from the 
Dryden - Vermilion Bay area. 

The single bird observed at Minaki in February is con- 
sidered to be a northern sharp-tail that has strayed south of its 
normal range. This sighting is not included in the main data of 
this report. 

The two hundred and eighty-five sharp-tails observed are 
the sum of 31 sightings made on 26 locations. Six of the 31 
sightings were of single birds, which are probably wandering males. 
Covey size varied from 1 to 40 (approx.) birds, with the average 
covey size being 3.2 birds per covey. 

There is a possibility that a small number of coveys 
recorded on locations that are within one or two miles of each 
other has been duplicated. However, as there is no way of disting- 
uishing between coveys, all sightings made on these locations will 
be considered as different coveys for the purpose of this report. 



44 



Winter observations of sharp- tail coveys indicate heavy 
utilization of cranberry bogs with food sources being alder , willow 
and white birch buds and fruits. 



The locations of sharp- tail coveys observed during 1963 
are listed below and illustrated in Appendix I.*-" 



Date 


Location 








No. of Birds 


1963 














Jan. 


N 1/2 


Lot 2 - 


Con. 


Ill 


Sanford Twp. 


1 


**Feb. 


S 1/2 


Lot 12- 


Con. 


I 


Wainwright Twp. 


4 


Mar. 


N 1/2 


Lot 5 - 


Con. 


IV 


Van Home Twp. 


1 


Mar. 


S 1/2 


Lot 1 - 


Con. 


II 


Mutrie Twp. 


4 


Apr. 


N 1/2 


Lot 4 - 


Con. 


I 


Sanford Twp. 


5 


Apr. 


S 1/2 


Lot 12- 


Con. 


V 


Aubrey Twp. 


12 


Apr. 


S 1/2 


Lot 10- 


Con. 


IV 


Melgund Twp. 


1 


*Apr. 


N 1/2 


Lot 21- 


Con. 


IX 


Zealand Twp. 


14 


****Apr . 


S 1/2 


Lot 4 - 


Con. 


I 


Britton Twp. 


15 


***Apr . 


N 1/2 


Lot 3 - 


Con. 


II 


Wabigoon Twp. 


9 


Apr. 


S 1/2 


Lot 8 - 


Con. 


III 


Van Home Twp. 


4 


Apr. 


N 1/2 


Lot 4 - 


Con. 


II 


Eton Twp. 


1 


*July 


N 1/2 


Lot 21- 


Con. 


IX 


Zealand Twp. 


Brood 1+11 
Brood 1+8 


Aug. 


N 1/2 


Lot 6 - 


Con. 


V 


Revel Twp. 


5 


Sept. 


N 1/2 


Lot 12- 


Con. 


VI 


Hartman Twp. 


9 


Sept. 


N 1/2 


Lot 3 - 


Con. 


XII 


Zealand Twp. 


15 


Sept. 


N 1/2 


Lot 1 - 


Con. 


IV 


Hartman Twp. 


4 


**Sept. 


S 1/2 


Lot 12- 


Con. 


I 


Wainwright Twp. 


18 


Sept. 


S 1/2 


Lot 2 - 


Con. 


II 


Mutrie Twp. 


15 


Sept. 


S 1/2 


Lot 8 - 


Con. 


I 


Britton Twp. 


11 


Sept. 


S 1/2 


Lot 21- 


Con. 


XII 


Zealand Twp. 


12 


Sept. 


S 1/2 


Lot 10- 


Con. 


V 


Eton Twp. 


23 


Dec. 


N 1/2 


Lot 2 - 


Con. 


I 


Britton Twp. 


7 


***Dec . 


N 1/2 


Lot 3 - 


Con. 


II 


Wabigoon Twp. 


16 


Dec. 


Dryden 


Paper Co 


. Rd. 


Camp #32, 


Burning Lake 


1 


Dec. 


S 1/2 


Lot 12- 


Con. 


VI 


Hartman Twp. 


1 


Dec. 


N 1/2 


Lot 11- 


Con. 


II 


Wainwright Twp. 


3 


Dec. 


S 1/2 


Lot 2 & 


3. Con. II 


Wainwright Twp. 


6 


Dec . 


N 1/2 


Lot 5 - 


Con. 


II 


Van Home Twp. 


7 


**** Jan . 64 


S 1/2 


Lot 4 - 


Con. 


I 


Britton Twp. 


40 approx. 



9 9 9 



**** Same Location, Different No. Birds observed at 
different times. 



1. A map showing the location of dancing grounds and sightings of 
sharp- tailed grouse coveys accompanied the original report now 
in the Fish and Wildlife Library, Maple. 



45 



Dancing Grounds 

Seven new dancing grounds were located this year to 
bring the total of known active dancing grounds to eight. 

Two dancing grounds located by Olsen (1959) have become 
inactive and no apparent reason can be found for the birds 
abandoning these sites. Sharp-tails are still present in these 
areas and an effort to relocate their new dancing grounds will be 
made this coming spring. 

The locations of dancing grounds and the largest number 
of birds observed on each are listed below. 






Map Location 






Location 




No. Birds 


Index 












Observed 


A 


N 1/2 


Lot 


2 - 


Con. II - 


Wabigoon Twp. 


9 


B 


S 1/2 


Lot 


1 - 


Con. II - 


Mutrie Twp. 


4 


C 


N 1/2 


Lot 


4 - 


Con. I - 


Sanford Twp. 


5 


D 


N 1/2 


Lot 


12- 


Con. V - 


Aubrey Twp. 


12 


E 


S 1/2 


Lot 


12- 


Con . I - 


Wainwright Twp. 


4 


F 


S 1/2 


Lot 


8 - 


Con. III- 


Van Home Twp. 


4 


G 


N 1/2 


Lot 


21- 


Con. IX - 


Zealand Twp. 


14 


H 


N 1/2 


Lot 


4 - 


Con. I - 


Britton Twp. 


15 


* 


S 1/2 


Lot 


1 - 


Con . V - 


Sanford Twp. 




* 


S 1/2 


Lot 


8 - 


Con. IV - 


Melgund Twp. 





* Dancing Grounds located by Clsen (1959) that have become 
inactive. 



Sharp- tails were first observed dancing on March 26, 
which is somewhat earlier than last year, when dancing was not 
observed until April 1. Dancing reached its peak about April 20 
and continued until April 26 when the males became inactive and 
dancing was spasmodic. 

All eight dancing grounds are situated in cultivated 
fields which are usually in stubble at this time of year. The 
exception was dancing grounds "C )? which was ploughed. The birds 
were observed dancing atop and between the furrows. 



■:•; 






46 



During visits to dancing grounds "B H , °°D" and'fc" birds 

were observed that did not participate in the dancing activities. 

These birds are considered to be females and the ratio of males to 
females observed was: 

B - 3:1; D - 9:3 (3:1); G - 10:4 (2.5:1) 
Breeding Success 

After nesting took place, work on this survey was limited 
with the results that only two broods were observed throughout the 
summer months. 

The broods were observed near dancing grounds "G" and 
consisted of one hen with 11 young, and one hen with eight young. 
Breeding success in this case was good and as indicated by later 
observations, the survival of young was high. However, as this 
is the only indication of breeding success, it is impossible to 
apply it to the whole area. 

Apparent increases in the size of fall coveys over those 
observed in the spring may be evidence that the population has 
increased this year. Spring flushing counts on dancing grounds should 
give a true picture of the population trend. 

Hunter Success 

In the past, no hunter contact information was collected 
for sharp-tailed grouse. This was primarily due to the difficulty 
of obtaining such information. 

This year sportsmen were informed of the need for hunter 
success information through the medium of department news releases, 
talks to conservation clubs and hunter safety training classes, and 
personal contact in the field. Sportsmen who expressed an interest 
in hunting sharp- tails were requested to report their success on the 
forms provided. 

Eleven hunters reported hunting a total of 35 man-hours 
and killing eight sharp- tailed grouse. Five of the eight birds 
killed were sexed and aged. These data are tabulated below: 

No. Birds Aged & Sexed - 5 

No. Adult Males - 3 

No. Adult Females - 1 

No. Juvenile Males - 1 

No. Juvenile Females - 



47 



Hunting pressure is considered to be light and may be 
attributed to the following reasons: 

(1) Few local sportsmen take to the field specifically to hunt 

sharp-tails. 

(2) The majority of sharp- tail coveys are found on private land 
and in many cases the land owners are reluctant to permit 
sportsmen to hunt on their property. These land owners 
indicate that they enjoy watching the activities of the 
birds and do not wish to expose them to destruction by the 
gun. 

(3) Most hunters who encounter a covey of sharp- tails lack the 
knowledge of how to hunt this species. They find the birds 
flush wild and feel that success can only be obatined by 
"plinking" at them from some distance with a .22 calibre rifle 

Prairie Chickens (Pinnated Grouse) 

During conversations with some of the older residents 
of the area, some confusion was encountered with the use of the 
term "prairie chicken". 

The Prairie Chicken or Pinnated Grouse Tympanuchus 
cupido was at one time plentiful in this area and according to the 
older residents large flocks were observed along the railway tracks 
during the time that grain was transported in leaky box cars from 
the Western Provinces to the Head of the Lakes . 

It is suggested by these residents that the grouse 
moved into this area by following the trail of grain left on the 
tracks by the leaking boxcars and when leak-proof cars came into 
being the birds diminished with the loss of the ready food supply. 
Sharp-tailed grouse then moved in to inhabit the range abandoned 
by the prairie chickens. 

The prairie chicken is all but gone from this area now. 
The last sighting of this species was recorded by Olsen (1959), 
when he observed two pinnated grouse dancing with four sharp-tails 
on the S 1/2 Lot 1, Con. V, Sanford Township. This dancing ground 
has since become inactive. 

Although the prairie chicken has disappeared from this 
area, the term is still used by local residents when referring to 
the sharp-tailed grouse. 









48 



Discussion 

The fate of the sharp- tailed grouse in this area is 
undetermined. Indications are that the population has increased 
this year and if this is true, the increase is probably due to 
good breeding success and is limited only to this year. 

It is evident that the future of the sharp- tailed grouse 
in this area will depend on what happens to the existing habitat, 
particularly in the Dryden - Vermilion Bay area. Ideal situations 
exist here to exercise some constructive management. Timber 
harvesting combined with controlled burning on these locations would 
not only improve sharp-tail range, but would also aid blueberry 
production. However, until such time as more interest is placed on 
sharp- tailed grouse, management of this species must be limited. 

The following are suggestions for future management 
in this area: 

1. Continuance of the spring survey using the Road traverse - 
Listening Count Method to locate dancing grounds. Deputy 
Chief Rangers could be organized to conduct this part of the 
survey in their areas under the direction of the conservation 
officer in charge. 

2. Combined with the above, flushing counts on known dancing 
grounds to establish a population trend. 

3. More intensive work on brood counts is required to relate 
breeding success. 

4. Increased effort to obtain hunter success information with 
emphasis on the collection of wings, tails and possible crop 
analysis. This would require informing sportsmen of the need 
for the information and obtaining their co-operation. 

Acknowledgments 

A vote of thanks is extended to the members of the district 
staff for their co-operation in providing information for this 
report. 

Special mention is given pilot Pete Peterson for his 
co-operation and skill in handling the helicopter and to District 
Forester, G. F. Coyne for providing the four specimens sent to 
Maple. 



49 

Thanks is also extended to Fish and Wildlife Supervisor, 
Wm. Charlton and Biologist, K. Chambers for their constructive 
criticisms of the writing of this report. 

References 

Amman, G. A., 1957, The Prairie Grouse of Michigan. Game Division, 
Dept. of Conservation, Lansing, Michigan. 

Charlton, Wm. H., 1^62. Ruffed Grouse. Drum and Brood Counts, 
Kenora District 1962. Resource Mgt. Report No. 67, 
January, 1963. 

Edminster, F. C, 1954. American Game Birds of Field and Forest. 
Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 

Hamerstrom, F. N. Jr., & Frances Hamerstrom, 1951. Mobility of 
Sharp-tailed Grouse in Relation to its Ecology and 
Distribution. Amer. Midland Nat. Vol. 46(1): 174-226. 



McGillivray, R. W., 1962. Present Status of Sharp-tailed Grouse, 

Kenora District, 1962. Resource Mgt. Rept. No. 70, July, 
1963. 

Miller. J. G., 1960. Report on Sharp-tailed Grouse 1960. Fish and 
Wildlife Mgt. Report No. 58, July, 1961. 

Miller, J. G., 1962. Sharp-tail and Ruffed Grouse Spring Survey 

and Brood Counts, Fort Frances District 1962. Resource. 
Mgt. Report No. 67 - Jan. 1963. 

Olsen, A. R., 1959. Status of Sharp-tailed Grouse in the Kenora 

District 1959. Fish and Wildlife Mgt. Report No. 50, 
Feb., 1960. 

Taber, R. D., 1960. Criteria of Sex and Age. Sec. 6 P. - 6:1 

Manual of Game Investigational Techniques. The Wildlife 
Society. 



50 



LAKE MINDEMOYA CREEL CENSUS, 1961, 1962, 1963 

by 

F. A. Zimmerr.an, 
Conservation Officer, Sudbury Forest District 



Abstrac t 

Lake Mindemoya is one the Sudbury Districts most 
productive and heavily utilized walleye-perch lakes. 
A creel census begun on this lake in 1961 has been 
continued each year since then. This report provides 
the 1963 creel records and compares the data for the 
three years. 



Methods Used 

The 1963 creel census was carried out in a manner similar 
to that used in 1961 and 1962. (Zimmerman 1962, 1963) 

1963 Data - The census period was from June 4 to October 24 and 
131 of the potential 146 days were fished. 1278 fishermen were 
checked during this interval. They caught 4061 fish of six species 
in 5228 hours. The largest portion of the catch (47.27o) was 
represented by the walleye ( Stizostedion vitreum ) with yellow perch 
(Perca flavescens ) making up 34.3 per cent. The former species 
supported the fishery from early June to mid-September when perch 
began to dominate the catch. Whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis ) 
were most plentiful during the latter part of September but as in 
previous years played a relatively insignificant role in the lake's 
fishery as did the smallmouth bass ( Micropterus dolomieui ) the nor- 
thern pike (Esox lucius ) and the rock bass ( Ambloplites rupestris ). 

Tables 1, 11 and 111 provide the 1963 data in detail. 

A Comparison of the Data Collected in 1961, 1962, 1963 

Since 1961, 4392 anglers have been checked on Lake 
Mindemoya. During this time they caught 12,265 fish of six species 
with the walleye representing 51.9 per cent of the fish and the 
yellow perch 33.2 per cent. 

If we let the percentage relative frequency for each species 
of the 1961 harvest represent 100 then considering the perch and 
walleye data in 1962 the perch improved their position in the season's 
total by almost 44 per cent while the walleye declined by 9 per cent. 



'■'■>' 



51 



In 1963 the perch still showed an improvement over 1961 of 35 per cent 
while walleye continued to decline by 17 per cent. Tables IV, V 
and VI show the data comparing the three years. 

The period June 16 to October 15 is common to all three 
creel census. Within these periods it appears that the majority of 
the walleye are taken between June 16 and July 31 while the majority 
of the perch are taken between September 16 and October 15. Consi- 
dering this period alone in the three years it was found that 
between 40 and 54 per cent of the anglers were checked in the early 
summer period and between 19 and 29 per cent of the anglers in the 
early fall period. Between 62 and 65 per cent of the walleye were 
taken in the first six weeks (June 16= July 31) and between 70 to 
95 per cent of the perch in the last 4 weeks (September 15-Qctober 
15). Table VII has been constructed to show this information. 

Discussion 

The 1962 report on the Lake Mindemoya creel census was 
given constructive criticism by Mr. J. G. Weir of the Game Fish 
Section in August of 1963. I sincerely appreciate the thought and 
effort Mr. Weir has given in examining my work and would like to 
include in this discussion his thoughts on the subject of Lake 
Mindemoya and my answers to his questions. 

1. "The whitefish fishery must be a specialized activity and 
we are wondering what the catch of smallmouth bass and pike 
would be if these species were also given preferred 
attention by casting along the shore and in the vicinity 
of weedbeds." 

The whitefish fishery is a "specialized activity" with 
most of these fish being caught in one "hole" where there 
is a very strong year round bottom spring. 164 of the 
239 whitefish caught in 1963 were caught by sportsmen, in 
my opinion, while fishing specifically for whitefish. 52 
sportsmen were recorded fishing for whitefish and they 
fished for a total of 261 hours. This produced a C.U.Eo 
of 62.8 whitefish per 100 rod-hours. Most of the whitefish 
were taken in the September 16-30 fishing period. 

Thirteen anglers were checked specifically fishing for 
smallmouth bass. They caught 39 bass in 58 hours for a 
C.U.E. of 67.2 bass per hundred rod°hours. It is fairly 
evident from this information that bass can be caught if 
desired. However, with an abundance of bass fishing avail- 
able on Manitoulin and the reputation that Mindemoya has 
for walleye and perch the visiting sportsmen seldom seek 
out the bass fishing in Lake Mindemoya. Likewise relatively 



-;:,:, fi 



52 



few anglers specifically fish Lake Mindemoya for pike. It 
is my opinion, then, that bass and pike fisheries are avail- 
able for interested fishermen but due to competing lakes 
and the popularity of Lake Mindemoya perch and walleye they 
are not being utilized. 

2. "In 1961 and 1962, the recorded harvest of walleye is 
considerably greater than the corresponding harvest of 
perch. Is this the result of angler selectivity? What 
is actually being caught? Do anglers tend to keep more 
perch when walleyes are hard to catch? Are many small 
perch caught at any time and are they generally released? 
Is the anglers "take" in this combined fishery a true in- 
dication of the availability of these species to fisher- 
men?" During the three years, 1561, 1962 and 1963 the 
harvest of walleye was considerably greater than the 
harvest of perch. This difference I feel was not due to 
angler selectivity but to the relative availability of the 
different species and the duration of the creel census. 
The perch taken in the fall were considered highly desir- 
able and were generally of a large size. These fish were 
undoubtedly there in the spring and early summer and had 
not grown enough in three months to significantly alter 
their desirability to the angler. It is difficult to 
believe that we are catering to two different groups of 
fishermen -- those that come up early to fish walleye 
exclusively and those that come op late to fish perch 
exclusively. I feel quite safe in saying that if perch 
can be caught in June they will be caught, kept and 
reported. Similar ily if walleye are caught in October 
we will have a record of them. I am more inclined to 
say that due to changes in the physical make-up of the 
two species as a result of seasonal changes which occur 
in the lake we are experiencing differences in the 
availability to the fishermen of each species at differ- 
ent times of the year. The period during which the perch 
harvest is at its peak is relatively short compared to 
that for walleye. This I think is due to the creel 
census ending in mid- October at the peak of the perch 
fishing. If we continued the creel census two or four 
more weeks in October and fishermen continued to fish 
Mindemoya then the percentage relative distribution of 
the two species would probably be closer. 

The creel census data provided in this report and the other 
two of 1961 and 1C2 are fair descriptions of what is 
actually being caught. When perch are caught they are 
kept, when walleye are caught they are kept, when both 



53 



species are caught both species are kept. Perch tend 
to be smaller during the early part of the season but 
are still kept to be eaten. During the early part of the 
season I interviewed fishermen who were going to other 
Island lakes in search of perch. The perch seems to be 
increasing in importance as a game and food fish. 

Acknowledgment s 

I would like to thank Mr. R. Archer of Lake Mindemoya for 
his advice and assistance in carrying out the Lake Mindemoya study. 
I would also like to thank Mr. D. Gillespie of this District for 
his assistance. 

References 

Zimmerman, F. A., 1962. 

Some Observations on the Quality of Angling in Lake 
Mindemoya, Manitoulin Island, 1961. Resource Manage- 
ment Report, No. 64, July, 1962, pp. 35-42. 

Zimmerman, F. A., 1963. 

Lake Mindemoya Creel Census, 1962. Unpublished Report, 
Ont. Dept. Lands & Forests, Sudbury District, 6 pp. 
mimeo . 



54 



TABLE 1 





1 


263 Catch Data 


by Species 






Period 


Bass 


Perch 


Pike 


Rock Bass 


Walleye 


Whitef ish 


June 1-15 




7 




2 


441 




16-30 




76 




5 


452 


15 


July 1-15 


14 


64 


1 


2 


240 


3 


16-31 


7 


29 




7 


207 


29 


Aug. 1-15 


1 


24 


2 


28 


86 


11 


16-31 


6 




6 


45 


184 




Sept, 1-15 


9 


60 


18 


10 


22 


40 


16-30 


24 


464 


10 


20 


64 


107 


C ; ct„ 1-15 


43 


551 




227 


186 


29 


16-24 


4 


142 


2 




35 




Total: 


108 


1417 


39 


346 


1917 


234 


Per cent of 
Total Catch 


2c66 


34.8 


.96 


8.52 


47.21 


5.76 



55 



TABLE 11 



1363 Total Catch Data 



Period 


Total Fish 


Hours 


Anglers 




June 1-15 


450 


710 


186 


16-30 


548 


639 


157 




July 1-15 


324 


490 


137 




16-31 


279 


493 


126 




hug. 1-15 


152 


428 


127 




16-31 


241 


476 


128 




Sept. 1-15 


159 


347 


85 




16-30 


689 


695 


133 




Oct. 1-15 


1036 


854 


176 




16-24 


183 


96 


23 




Total: 


4061 


5228 


1278 
















! • 



56 



TABLE 111 





1363 Catch Per Unit Effort (C.U.E.) 










Y$ 


Period 


Fish /100 
Rod -Hours 


Perch /100 
Rod-Hours 


Walleye /100 
Rod -Hours 


June 1-15 


63,4 


1.0 


62.1 


16-30 


85.8 


11.9 


70.7 


July 1-15 


66.1 


13.1 


49.0 


16-31 


56.6 


5.9 


42.0 


Aug. 1-15 


35.5 


5.6 


20.1 


16-31 


50.6 




38.7 


Sept. 1-15 


45.8 


17.3 


6.3 


16-30 


99.1 


66.8 


9.2 


Cct. 1-15 


121.3 


64.5 


21.8 


16-24 


190.6 


147.9 


36.5 


Season 


77.7 










h~ 



57 



TABLE IV 



Comparative Catch Data, Lake Mindemoya 
1961, 1962, 1963 



Year 


Bass 


Perch 


Pike 


Rock Bass 


Walleye 


Whitefish 


1961 


108 


912 


61 


220 


2010 


211 


1962 


138 


1746 


83 


132 


2433 


150 


1363 


108 


1417 


39 


346 


1917 


234 


Total 


354 


4075 


183 


698 


6360 


595 



Continued: 



Year 


Total Fish 


Hours 


Anglers 


1961 
1962 
1963 


3522 
4682 
4061 


5316 
6225 
5228 


1518 
1596 
1278 


Total 


12265 


16773 


4392 

— — — — , . 



!— .. 



58 



TABLE V 



Comparative Percentage Relative Frequency of 

Catch by Species With Total Catch & Effort 

Expressed as a Percentage of Three Year Totals 



Year 


Bass 


Perch 


Pike 


Rock Bass 


Walleye 


Whitefish 


Total 


1961 


3.1 


25.9 


1.7 


6.2 


57.1 


6.0 


100% 


1962 


2.9 


37,3 


1.8 


2.8 


52.0 


3.2 


100% 


1963 


2.7 


34.9 


1.0 


8.5 


47.2 


5.8 


100% 




2.9 


33.2 


1.5 


5.7 


51.9 


4.9 


100% 








Total F 


ish 


Hours 




Anglers 




1961 






23. 7 




31.7 




34.6 




1962 






38.2 




37.1 




36.3 




1963 






33.1 




31.2 




29.1 




Total 






100% 




100% 




100% 





TABLE VI 





Comparative C.U.E. Data 




Year 


Fish/100 Rod-Ers. 


Perch/100 Rod-Hrs. 


Walleye/100 Rod-Hrs. 


1961 


66.3 


17.2 


37.8 


1962 


75.2 


28.0 


39.1 


1963 


77.7 


27.1 


36.7 



59 



TABLE Vll 



Percentage Distribution of Angling Effort 
and Catch for Selected Periods During the 
Three Year Creel Census 



Year 


Q 


Anglers 


<D 


® 


Walleye 


® 


(J) 


Perch 


<S> 


1%1 


54% 




19% 


65% 




12% 


95% 




5% 


Total 




73% 






77% 






100% 




1962 


52% 




22% 


69% 




8% 


70% 




18% 


Total 




74% 






77% 






88% 




1963 


40% 




29% 


62% 




17% 


80% 




13% 


Total 




69% 






79% 




i 


93% 





® June 16 to July 31. @ September 16 to October 15 






. 



•